Battle of Khadki: This took place beginning from 5th November 1817 (at about 4 p.m.) in a region near Pune between Bopodi, Khadki village, University Road and Agricultural College. A few days later a minor skirmish took place near Yerawada in sequel and then another major action near Satara. The East India Company wanted the Peshwa (Bajirao II) to give up Trimbakji Dengle who was supposed to have planned the murder of Gangadhar Shastri, an envoy from Baroda, in Pandharpur. Gangadhar Shastri was under the protection of the Company.(Some evidence seems to have been offered pointing towards a conspiracy on the part of a section of the court of the Baroda state. See a report on a 1939 thesis presented to the London university.) Apart from this affair, the Company wanted the Peshwa to act militarily against Pindaris, a loosely organized band of raiders and looters who had made life difficult for the common people. The Pindaris were known to get protection and infrastructure from the Maratha confederates for a payment. This led to the above mentioned confrontation and battle which proved to be the final closure of the Maratha polity. Another battle was fought at Sitabuldi in Nagpur against the Bhosale faction in the same month. Since Peshwa was the titular executive of the Maratha Confederacy, it could be said that the Battle of Khadki and its sequels were the last military actions of the Maratha Confederacy when having independent military status. A copy of a map with the details of the main battle and a satellite picture of the same area today is given below. The map appears to have some problem with the scale if the location of Chatushshrungi temple (Pagoda) is assumed correct. I am currently exploring the field. Certainly, most of the roads indicated have changed. This has complicated the task of accessing and guessing the locations. However, the excellent agreement with the shape of the river has helped.[Map from The Gazette of the Bombay Presidency.] [Recent satellite picture of the same geographical region.] A painting of Pune from somewhere a little north of the present day Sangam Bridge (towards Holkar Bridge). This was Pune in 1804. The battle above had not taken place. The residency is seen in the picture (the building with a white flag to the right). It existed at the location of the present day Magistrate's residence opposite CID office near Sangam Bridge. Bajirao II 's forces attacked the residency, burnt the excellent library it had and uprooted trees planted by Charles Malet. As this was being done, Mountstuart Elphinstone the resident swam across to the northern bank and made his way up via Holkar bridge to join his forces at Khadki.